Symmetric groups are some of the most essential types of finite groups. A symmetric group is the group of permutations on a set. The group of permutations on a set of n-elements is denoted S_n. Symmetric groups capture the history of abstract algebra, provide a wide range of examples in group theory, are useful when writing software to study abstract algebra, and every finite group can be represented as a subgroup of a symmetric group. This result is known as Cayley's Theorem.
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Abstract Algebra deals with groups, rings, fields, and modules. These are abstract structures which appear in many different branches of mathematics, including geometry, number theory, topology, and more. They even appear in scientific topics such as quantum mechanics.