Fermat's Little Theorem was observed by Fermat and proven by Euler, who generalized the theorem significantly. This theorem aids in dividing extremely large numbers and can aid in testing numbers to see if they are prime. For more advanced students, this theorem can be easily proven using basic group theory.
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Number Theory is the study of whole numbers - also called integers. Since math began with the study of shapes and whole numbers, this is one of the oldest subjects around. However, it's also one of the most challenging. Many problems in number theory are easy to understand, but require a lot of cleverness to solve. It also does not require any advanced math to learn! Number Theory is for everyone.